Adam Smith, the 18th century economist known as the “father of capitalism,” was born in Scotland in 1723. Smith’s first book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, propelled him to fame. His second book, The Wealth of Nations, had a profound influence on the world, solidifying classical economic theory as the dominant economic theory of the 18th and 19th century. Smith’s work espoused a “free” market regulated by competition and supply and demand, rather than government. The intention was to help countries develop capitalist economies to replace the mercantalist control of monarchies and establish democratic rule—the theory being that capitalist democracies will regulate themselves, guided by the “invisible hand” of the market. The book also introduced the concept of a gross domestic (or national) product, and covers topics from the division of labor to agriculture, taxation, and war. Classical economics was largely replaced after the Great Depression and World War II, by Keynesian economics, which advocated for more government intervention in markets. But classical economics had changed the world forever. Smith’s influence on trade and global politics cannot be overstated, yet he died, in 1790, apparently regretting that he had not done more. He is buried in Canongate Kirkyard, in Edinburgh.