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Some parts of the hiring process are dictated by law. Laws differ depending on the size of your company and the jurisdiction in which you operate. For example, California prohibits companies from asking candidates about their salary history,* but most states still allow such questions.* Giving legal advice is outside the scope of this work, but you can read more about the types of things you can and cannot do in an interview process below.
Many legal restrictions relate to questions that companies cannot ask candidates during the interview process. Generally speaking, companies are prohibited from asking candidates about the following topics, either directly or indirectly:
family and marital status
gender and gender identity
race and ethnicity
salary and benefits history
whether the candidate has ever filed a worker’s compensation claim.
In addition, companies are prohibited from collecting and using genetic information in making employment decisions.*
dangerSome interviewers might try to make conversation without realizing that what they’re asking is illegal. Be wary of questions that do not explicitly refer to these issues but nonetheless drive at the same information. For example: When did you graduate from college? (age); How many sick days did you take this year? (medical history); Do you live alone? (family and marital status); Where does your husband work? (family and marital status, gender and gender identity, sexual orientation). Even indirectly posed questions like these are discriminatory and illegal.
Companies are permitted to seek voluntary demographic data from applicants as long as a particular candidate’s data is not shared with any employees who can affect whether that candidate receives an offer.* Moreover, many companies* are required to report annually the number of their employees by sex, race/ethnicity, and job category to the federal government.*